All these achievements were cut short in 1669, when Heraklion, the last main Venetian stronghold on Crete, fell into the hands of the Turks. Bloody struggles and uprisings against Ottoman rule led to the autonomy of Crete in 1898: this period lasted to 1913 when the island achieved union with the rest of Greece.
Crete came under repeated threats of incursion by the Turks in the last few decades of Venetian rule. The full invasion began in 1645, with the attack on Chania. 60,000 Ottoman soldiers landed close to it: rapidly the beautiful city fell into their grasp. Proceeding eastwards, the Turks moved on their next target, Rethymnon, which they in the next year.
The last and successful uprising of the Cretans against the Ottoman rule, between 1896-1898, forced the Great Powers to pressure the Ottoman Turks to grant autonomy to Crete. Thus was brought into being the semi-autonomous Cretan State, under the protective governorship of the Great Powers, and with Prince George of Greece as Commissioner and the island capital at Chania.